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Texts

The heading included Nikolaj Kljuev’s texts, taken up in detail as articles or translations at the site. In view of absence of the academic collected Kljuev’s works, his works are quoted according to different editions.

Belaya Indiya (“Na dne vseh mirov, okeanov i gor…”)

“Nasha sobachka u vorot otlayala...”

Poddonnyi psalom (“Chto napishu i chto reku, o Gospodi!”)

Razruha

1. Pesn' Gamajuna (“K nam vesti gor'kie prishli…”)

2. “Ot Lache-ozera do Vyga…”

Spas

1. Vyshel len iz mochisha…

2. Ya rodil Emmanuila…

3. Ya rodilsya v vertepe…

4. V dni po voznesenii Hrista…

5. Neugasimoe plamya…

6. Moi usta — goryuchaya pustynya…

7. Gospodi, opyat' zvonyat…

8. Voiti v Tvoi rany — v zhivuyu kupel'…

Solovki (“Rasprekrasen Soloveckii ostrov…”)

<Vladimiru Kirillovu>

2. Tvoe prozvishe — russkii gorod...

 

Translations

Translations will make possible to trace features of alien perception of Nikolaj Kljuev poetry. The material is submitted without regard for a professional level of translations.

Razruha

1. Pesn' Gamajuna (“K nam vesti gor'kie prishli…”) (transl. by G.Sitko)

2. “Ot Lache-ozera do Vyga…” (transl. by G.Sitko)

 

Dedications

Dedications make up small poetic anthology, which it is possible to name “Garland to Nikolaj Kljuev”. Here verses of different years (including not published earlier) are submitted. This will allow to see in Kljuev both the participant of alive dialogue with the contemporaries, and inspirer of the coming generations.

B.Bogomolov. “Ty dolgo, Rus', zhdala predtechu...”

I.P.Brihnichev. Nikolaju Kljuevu (“Ya vse prostil Tebe, Poet…”)

S.A.Esenin. Nikolayu Klyuevu (“O Rus', vzmahni krylami…”)

S.A.Esenin. O muza, drug moi gibkii...

S.A.Esenin. Teper' lyubov' moya ne ta.

S.A.Esenin. Na Kavkaze (“Izdrevle russkii nash Parnas...”)

V.T. Kirillov. Iz dnevnika 18-go goda («Byl vecher rozov, gorod neobychen…»)

St.A.Minakov. «Postav' na polochku, gde Osip i Nikola…»

Vs.A. Rozhdestvenskii. «Gluboka tropa medvezh'ya…»

G.S.Sit'ko. V pamyat' o Klyuevskih konferenciyah v slavnom gorode Vytegre («Ya vernulsya v tot krai zabytyi...»)

G.S.Sit'ko. Tomsk («Zheltoi ranoi istekaet listopad…»)

G.S.Sitko. Russkij Sever (“Na Vostoke ala zor'ka zanimaetsya...”)

P.G. Tychina. “I Belyj, I Blok...”

A.V.Shiryaevec. Nikolaju Kljuevu (“Govoril ty mne, chto malo u menya udalyh strok...”)

 

Academia

N.Yu. Bel’chenko. “Plach o Sergee Esenine”: ritual mythical interpretation of the text

In the article the ritual mythical approach is used for interpretation of Nikolaj Kljuev poem “Plach o Sergee Esenine”. The author mentions, that N. Kljuev’s creative work in “Plach o Sergee Esenine” consecrated on all the stretch by national tradition represents the perfect sample of the symbolical text of the special sort. N.Yu. Bel’chenko defends the thought that the highest form of realization of the symbolical forms of conduct is the ritual in its interconnection with an orb of sacred. The author also attempts to reveal definite ritual intentions in the text under research. In space “Plach o Sergee Esenine” N. Kljuev creates for Esenin-suicide, whose sin, on a canon, is inexcusable, conditions, in which the situation: discord — victim — rescue is simulated, in continuity, peculiar to ritual. “Plach o Sergee Esenine” as the art text, saturated by ritual information, bears a field of force of other kind, not art order in addition to known aesthetic impressions. For perceiving consciousness usual polyfunctionality of the text is directed into a channel of predominant — and especially practical — function: rescuing of soul as lien of a space equilibrium. Ritually oriented art text is purely pattern subjected for realization, whose efficiency can not be doubtful rather than structural — art interpretation of any abstract patterns — invariants.

As a result of the analysis N. Bel’chenko has come to a conclusion, that ritual elements are not included passively in the art text with the decorative purpose, and are not conditional imitation. The function of the text, bound with attempt of interference in Esenin’s post-mortem destiny, defines appropriate semantics and sintactics.

N.Yu. Bel’chenko. Ritual as the key to the perusal of N.A. Kljuev’s cycle “Spas”

N.Belchenko proceeds from the methodological premise that the ritual is assumed as the basis of many N. Kljuev’s works. For research of ritual mechanisms the author involves not only a poetic cycle “Spas”, but also many other texts of the poet. The separate images (in particular, of Rasputin, Lion, tree, city, Poet   — of the Christ   — of Russia, Word), motives (transformation, conception), the structure of the text (situation of an input-output etc.) are analyzed, specific character of ritual means usage (dance, musical attending) is considered, the attempt to interpret an image of the lyrical hero in Kljuev’s text is made, anagram   is reconstructed — as a result N. Belchenko manages to prove, that the ritual is one of the codes for the perusal of poetic heritage of the poet.

N.Yu. Bel’chenko. B.Chichibabin and N.Klujev: The motif of Kindred and The Kindred of Motifs

L.A. Kiseleva. Nikolaj Kljuev’s poem “Mat’-Subbota”, 1922

The subject of analysis is one of the most complicated and unexplored Kljuev’s works. The contradictory responses of the contemporaries permit to understand a reason of interpretative disputes and misunderstanding of the text of the poem “Mat’-Subbota”. This is a unique sample of ornamental poetics of mature Kljuev, and its decoding requires other epistemological orientation, medieval comprehension of a word. In the article the aesthetic, ontological and epistemological function of Kljuev’s “ornament” have been researched; those cultural contexts which allow to reveal both a structural and functional role of separate elements and teleology of the text as a whole have also been defined.

L.A. Kiseleva. Poetic dialogues of Silver Age: N. Kljuev and К. Balmont

In the article the most noticeable elements of poetic dialogue between Kljuev and Balmont are researched. The special attention is paid to foregoing events of this dialogue, its culturelogical sense. Thus Kljuev’s creativity is interpreted as a new stage in development of national figurative thought.

L.A. Kiseleva. “Moi drevnii brat Gomer...”: About epic beginning in Nikolaj Klujev’s creative work

In this work the author made an attempt to analyze “external” and “internal” factors influencing on building-up of Kljuev’s creative epic self-consciousness. In particular, it is mentioned: link with the national religious epos, poetics of acathistus; orientation to a uniform supernarration; development of metaplot on the basis of ornamental poetics

L.A. Kiseleva. “Pesni iz Zaonezh’ya” — sources of Nikolaj Klujev’s “great epos”

For the first time the poems, which composed the section of “Pesni iz Zaonezh’ya”, have been examined as single cycle, the base codes, figurative constants, as well as mechanisms of structure making and sorts of “formness”, which are distinctive features of Klujev’s epos, have been defined. The author of the article comes to conclusion, that Klujev’s poetic word is incompatible with lexical values, it gravitates to “traditional sense”, that is peculiar to the semantic language of folklore tradition. Thus, Klujev’s epos demonstrates the alternate tendency of creation of “Russian semantic poetics as potential cultural paradigm”.

L.A. Kiseleva. The Esenin's text in Nikolaj Kljuev’s poetry

L.A.Kiseleva. Shevchenko and Kljuev

I.V. Kulakov. Public worship text in N. Kljuev’s poetry

The author of given article sets himself as an object to partially reconstruct public worship code of N. Kljuev’s some poetic works, espetially dwelling at length on the text of poem “Mat’-Subbota”. I.V. Kulakov understands the liturgics in extremely remote from church concretion sense: “Liturgics is enjoy of the God-Word (Mystery of the Word), but public worship formulas are signaling about availability of sacral senses”. The author of the article raises a problem about eucharistic chronotop of the text as about one of founding constants of N.A. Kljuev’s creative work. Just eucharistic chronotop, which is present in Kljuev’s poems converts verbal creativity into public worship.

By an example of separate Kljuev’s texts I.V. Kulakov researches both sacral names (“poetic calindars”), and public worship formulas, quoted by N. Kljuev, which change the poetic text in public worship. By means of disclosure of structural, formula and functional correspondences of a poem “Mat’-Subbota” of Divine liturgics the attempt is made to reconstruct public worship code of a poem. The material of research allows the author to come to conclusion, that the question is not about Kljuev direct following a canon of liturgics, but about availability of sacral senses of a poem, its “eucharistic chronotop” so to say converting a verbal service in public worship.

О.V. Pashko. Image of the goose in Nikolaj Kljuev’s creative works (to the analysis of ornithological code)

In the given article О.V. Pashko addresses to the analysis of motivated complexes of ornithological code in Nikolaj Kljuev’s poetical texts, in particular to the characteristic of the goose (goose-female). The author mentions, that ornithological code is interlinked with antropological and “hlebnyi” (grain) codes.

The angelical nature of birds, motive of world egg and a bird — demiurge subject is considered. The attention is accentuated on closeness of motives of a peasant house, Universe, World Tree and bird, as well as gnezdo — izba (a nest — a peasant house) and ptica — hram (a bird — a temple), an identification of images of goose and gumno (threshing-floor) is commented at greater length. The author of the article specifies on traditional for mythology solar symbolics of birds acquired by Kljuev.

The investigator dwells more in details on parallels of Mlechnyi Put’ (Galaxy) — gusinaya doroga (goose road) — path to paradise. O.V. Pashko also mentions the following motives: pecking and catching of birds. These motives are peculiar to an image of the goose in Kljuev’s text. Finelly, the motive as the identification “a bird — a poet” is reconstructed, that, in opinion of the author of the article, directly is interlinked to family name Kljuev. At the end of the article the revealed names of birds in Kljuev’s poetic texts are listed.

O.V. Pashko. Sirin and Alkonost in Nikolaj Kljuev’s poetry: To the question about influence of Old Believer wall sheets upon it

In this article the contributor has made up his mind not only to observe influence of Old Believer wall sheets upon N.Kljuev’s creativity, but also to analyze the ornithological code in researched poetry using an example of images of Sirin and Alkonost birds. The parallels are drawn between an image of the lyrical hero and bird; Sirin, Alkonost connexity with paradise, understood as a log hut, tree, person, Russ, “verbal paradise” is reconstructed; semantics of singing and crying is interpreted; the attempt of interpretation of  “two-head Sirin” character is made; the space motives are considered when creating the “paradise birds” images.

N.Poznyak. Archetypes of The Town and The Forest in the mythopoetry of N.Klujev and B.-I.Antonych 

S.N.Smol’niko. Mythologemma-toponymy Kitezh in N.A.Kljuev’s poetic system

Mythologemma-toponymy Kitezh is regarded by S.N.Smol’nikov as a key image of N.A. Kljuev’s poetic system. The author particularly emphasizes the variety and heterogeneity of the poet toponymy. Engaging an extensive historical and ethnographic material as well as analysing in detail the concrete word usage of the words Kitezh, kitezhane, kitezhskiy, the scientist of Vologda illustrates the way of transfer of real toponymy to objects of sacral (metaphysical) space. The author comes to the conclusion, that the toponymy (which can be referred to the mythonim category) Kitezh has composite symbolical semantics, in divers works of the poet it is not identical symbolically and functionly.

T.A. Shelkoplyas. Lexicologic-semantic means of creation of implication in N.A. Kljuev’s poetry

The present article is attempt to research Kljuev’s poetic vocabulary in connection with the problem of implication of his works. The basic material of work — two N. Kljuev’s poems: “Mat’-Subbota” and “Pogorel’shina”, most difficult for commenting. Refusing from customary surface reading, Т.А. Shelkoplyas makes thorough interpretation of concepts-characters “izba” (peasant house), “pryalka” (spinning wheel), “solnce” (sun), “kovriga” (loaf), “plotva” (roach), “sig” (sig), “petuh” (cock), “kukushka” (cuckoo), lopar’ (Lapp) and chud' (chood).

The author of the article postulates the thesis that the folklore and ethnographic aspects are very important for the analysis of N. Kljuev’s poetic lexicon. The dialect, local speech features “encoded” in it, enable to discover in essence new senses which are not accessible at traditional readings of the texts. This thesis is confirmed by the texts of songs “Vinograd’e”, which had existed in Obonezh’e, and also by the description of the rites and legends.

The thesis about ambivalence of Kljuev images of images is illustrated at explanation of concepts-characters “babka” (grandmother), “pryalka” (spinning wheel), “petuh” (cock). In the article the attention is also paid to toponimic aspect aspect, — in particular, at interpretation of the name village Sigovyi Lob (Pogorel'shina).

T.A. Shelkoplyas comes to a conclusion that Nikolaj Kljuev does not abuse with local dialects, being dipped in elements of public Russian language, and deepens, enriches and historically renders concrete our ideas about him.

G.S. Sit'ko. Ornamental pattern  as a basis of the cosmological system in Nikolaj Kljuev’s poem “Belaja India” (White India). A possibility of interpretation

The basis of a methodological principle of G. Sit’ko article is conception about Nikolaj Kljuev’s poetry as realizations of ornamental poetics. The contributor chooses  poem “Belaja India” as a subject of his observations. The attempt to observe the existence of verbal and representational ornament  has been made on the example of the analysis of separate images.

Collegium

Michael Makin (University of Michigan, USA). British first descoverer of late Klyuev

This article of the professor of Michigan University Michael Makin is devoted to essentially important (for study of Kljuev) aspect of scientific activity of the professor of Russian philology of Bristol University Gordon MacVay. It is dealing with materials of talk between Michael Makin and G. MacVay, held in 2001. Having briefly thrown the light upon Mac Vay’s biography as well as acquainted the reader with the bibliography of his works, author pays the basic attention to the talk about work of British scientist at N. Kljuev’s Works, edited by G.P. Struve and B.A. Filippoff, issued in 1969. “Young British Slavonic philologist who actually is specialist in study of Esenin than of Kljuev. In this issuing he has exposed about 60 unpublished earlier texts from the Soviet archives These are letters and poems, — the last are, true, in draft copies. These publications, alongside with the issuing “Pogorel’shina” of the New York collectio of 1954 (from archive of Italian Ettore lo Gatto) can by right be considered to be the main achievement of western Slavonic philologists regarding Nikolaj Kljuev”.

E.B. Meksh (University of Daugavpils, Latvia). Az Bog Vedayu Glagol Dobra (“Izbjanoj cosmos” as the future of Russia in N. Klujev’s “Poddonnyi psalom”)

In accordance with E.B. Meksh’s opinion, in “Poddonnyi psalom” not only special “image of the world” is constructed but “image” of the author is also transmitted. The author of article suggests that Kljuev has lined up his Utopian “probable world” in traditions of cultural syncretism. As Lithuanian scientist considers, just N.F. Fedorov’s statement “kindness is the saving of life for living and returning it to those who has lost and is losing the life” is the foundation of ideological matter of “Poddonnyi psalom”. In his poem Kljuev reconstructs ideal model of that spatial area, where this law is in effect. For the poet such ideal world is his peasant Russia, psalm-reader of which he realizes himself.

E.B. Meksh interprets some images of “Poddonnyi psalom”, in particular, “baba-hozyaika” (peasant women — house-wife), “izba” (peasant house), “el'” (fur-tree), “kon'” (steed), “Sirin” (Siren), “zhivotnyi hleb” (animal bread), “raduga” (rainbow), “more” (sea), “klyuchi” (keys); gives an example of symbolical interpretation of characters; reconstructs Kljuev’s conception about a person, resurrection, death, life, rest.

E.B. Meksh (University of Daugavpils, Latvia). Chronotop of “izbianoy kosmos ” in N. Kljuev’s poem “Nasha sobachka u vorot otlaiala… ”

The author defends idea that the chronotop of  “izbianogo kosmosa” in a context of N. Kljuev’s creativity should be understood as extensive national-cultural chronotop. He illustrates it by an example of the poem “Nasha sobachka u vorot otlaiala…”, in many respects anticipating the poem “Pogorel’schina”. And not only folk art, faith of grandparents, sacralized life but also literary orientations from Pushkin and Gogol up to Esenin are being understood as “national-cultural chronotop”. The composite build-up of the poem under analysis is considered, “the signal signs” of the subject are selected, and its folklore mythological content is considered.  

A.I. Miha’lov (Sankt-Peterburg, The Pushkin’s House). History and destiny in a mirror of dreams: on Nikolaj Kljuev’s dreams

The article of Peterburg scientist, doctor of philological sciences Alexandr Ivanovich Miha’lov is devoted to historical-literary understanding, interpretation and functional analysis of Nikolaj Kljuev’s dreams, written down on the stories of the poet by N.I. Arhipov and N.F Hristoforova-Sadomova in 1920—1930. The author defends the thought that N. Kljuev’s dreams — phenomenon that goes beyond the limits of the literature with its creative conceptions and traditional poetic engineering. They directly, mystically correlated with destiny of their “author”, and with destiny of his country. A.I. Miha’lov defines the purpose of the article — to indicate the most significant plots and images of dreams. The contributor also mentions providence nature of Kljuev’s dreams. А.I. Miha’lov picks out the following basic motives: dangerous place, blood, searches, rescuing from the persecutors, world salutary. But the rescuing — not final, therefore a theme of loss arises. The author of article builds parallels with Vladimir Nabokov’s creativity, especially with the novel “Priglashenie na kazn’”. But after the death the hero of N. Kljuev’s dreams sees “light at the end of the tunnel”: he again finds native to him the world of the nature, orthodoxy, native peasent house, Russia, Sacred Rusi (Svyataya Rus’) — their light glimmers to him behind feature of earth life. А.I. Miha’lov also mentions in details development of Esenin’s theme and not only in “the texts of dreams”, but also during all creativity of the poet.

A.I. Miha’lov (Sankt-Peterburg, The Pushkin’s House). Nikolaj Kljuev and “Serapionovy brat’ya”

For the first time after O. Forsh’s novel “Sumasshedshii korabl’” (“The Mad ship”) the article of doc. phil. Alexandr Miha’lov deals with historic-literary comparison of Nikolaj Kljuev’s creative work and literary group “Serapionovy brat’ya”. The contributor considers the conflict between “muzhickii genii Mikula” (“muzhik’s genius Mikula”) and vyrazitelyami “govora i povadki novyh grazhdan Soyuza” (mouthpieces of “dialect and habits of the new citizens of Union”), fixed by O. Forsh, as manifestation of tragedy of splitting of the Russian literature in the Soviet period. O. Forsh’s novel “Sumasshedshii korabl’”, N. Kljuev’s texts, recollections of contemporaries are the basis of the article material. Especially explicitly the author mentions creative interrelation of N. Kljuev and N. Tihonov, touching upon the subject “Poet i Vlast’” (“the Poet and Authority”).

Jezi Shokol’skiy (Institute of Slav philology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa). On all sides of the doomsday. To the question about apocalyptic motives in Nikolaj Kljuev’s creativity

In the article of Polish scientist Jezi Shokol’skiy, apocalyptic motives in Nikolay Kljuev’s creativity are exposed to the versatile analysis. The allusions, quotations and semi-quotations from “Otkrovenia Ioanna Bogoslova” are revealed, the chronotop of apocalyptic images undergoes analysis, the comparison of Kljuev’s texts motif with old ritual and sectarian conceptions is carried out  and the question about messiah of the lyrical hero of N.Kljuev’s poetry is raised.

G.V.Sviridov about N.A.Kljuev

L.G. Yatskevich, S.H. Golovkina (University of Vologda, Russia). The project of Kljuev’s poetic dictionary

Vologda school of the contributors under L.G. Yatskevich’s leadership introduces “N.A. Kljuev’s poetic dictionary” project, in which different sorts of links and relations of poetic words are supposed to be fixed stage by stage.

At the first stage “Frequency index of phrase forms” is created and the most primary task — to fix all phrase forms (word usage), met in N.A. Kljuev’s texts is to be solved.

At the second stage “Lexems Dictionary” is created. Late on it will enable to reveal subject groups of words — key ones in system organization of the dictionary of the poet.

At the third stage the work on “Poetic phraseology dictionary” is going on. This stage is to solve the following tasks: to compile the poetic phrases dictionary with words, dominating in a poetic lexicon; to describe both grammar models of phrases, and their semantic-syntactical models; to characterize associative — semantic models of figurative values.

As the illustration of the first three stages of creation of the dictionary the word “chelo” (brow) is used.

At the fourth stage “Poetic paradigms dictionary” is created, and upon this some of them are selected. Examples are paradigm “chelovek” (person), the terms of affinity, word “Rus’” (Russia) and “mat’” (mother).

Bibliography

This reference material is recommended to those, who begin acquaintance with Nikolaj Kljuev's creative works, pupils, students, teachers-philologists, as well as experts in the history and theory of the literature.

The bibliography of works of the Kiev N. Kljuev's creative works reseacher group

Critique

1912

V.Bryusov. Predislovie k sborniku “Sosen perezvon”

N.Gumilev. Pis'ma o russkoi poezii

V.Bryusov. Segodnyashnii den' russkoi poezii

V.Svencickii. Vstupitel'naya stat'ya k sborniku N.Kljueva "Bratskie pesni"

1913

S.Gorodeckii. Nekotorye techeniya v sovremennoi russkoi poezii

Ch. V-skii (Vasilii Cheshihin-Vetrinskii). Nikolaj Kljuev. Sosen perezvon. Lesnye byli

1914

Ivanov-Razumnik (R.Ivanov). “Prirody radostnyi prichastnik”

1916

N.Vengrov. Nikolaj Kljuev. Mirskie dumy

P.Sakulin. Narodnyi zlatocvet

Z.Buharova. Nikolaj Kljuev. “Mirskie dumy”

N.Shul'govski'. O “Mirskih Dumah” N.A.Klyueva (It is published first)

1917

Ivanov-Razumnik (R.Ivanov). Poety i revolyuciya

1918

A.Gizetti. Stihiya i tvorchestvo (Russkaya literatura pred licom revolyucii)

M.Platonov. Skify li?

1922

Ivanov-Razumnik (R.Ivanov). Tri bogatyrya

G.Alekseev. Nikolaj Kljuev

 

Chair

Offers to get acquainted with educational works about life and Nikolaj Kljuev works: term papers, degree and dissertation compositions (abstracts). We invite young contributors - participants of groups and seminars for cooperation!

Stefano PANCALDI (Italy, Bologna's University). Kljuev: Truths in poetry and in reality. Kljuev and his relationships with some german philosopher and writers. Doubts, problems, and disputes

Gallery

His Majesty's Feodorovsky Cathedral, Tsarskoye Selo

Kyrillo-Belozersky Cloister

Solovetsky Monastery